New York State Constitution of 1894



    WE, THE PEOPLE of the State of New York, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, in order to secure its blessings, do establish this Constitution.
    
    ARTICLE I.
    
    Section 1. -No member of this State shall be disfranchised, or deprived of any of the rights or privileges secured to any citizen thereof, unless by the law of the land, or the judgment of his peers.
    
     2. -The trial by jury in all cases in which it has been heretofore used shall remain inviolate forever; but a jury trial may be waived by the parties in all civil cases in the manner to be prescribed by law.
    
     3. -The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, with-out discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed in this State to all mankind; and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness on account of his opinions on matters of religious belief; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this State.
    
     4. -The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require its suspension.
    
     5. -Excessive bail shall not be required nor excessive fines imposed, nor shall cruel and unusual punishments be inflicted, nor shall witnesses be unreason-ably detained.
    
     6. -No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime (except in cases of impeachment, and in cases of militia when in actual service, and the land and naval forces in time of war, or which this State may keep with the consent of Congress in time of peace, and in cases of petit larceny, under the regulation of the Legislature), unless on presentment or indictment of a grand jury, and in any trial in any court whatever the party accused shall be allowed to appear and defend in person and with counsel as in civil actions. No person shall be subject to be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense; nor shall he be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
    
     7. -When private property shall be taken for any public use, the compensation to be made therefor, when such compensation is not made by the State, shall be ascertained by a jury, or by not less than three commissioners appointed by a court of record, as shall be prescribed by law. Private roads may be opened in the manner to be prescribed by law; but in every case the necessity of the road and the amount of all damage to be sustained by the opening thereof shall be first determined by a jury of freeholders, and such amount, together with the expenses of the proceeding, shall be paid by the person to be benefited. General laws may be passed permitting the owners or occupants of agricultural lands to construct and maintain for the drainage thereof, necessary drains, ditches and dikes upon the lands of others, under proper restrictions and with just compensation, but no special laws shall be enacted for such purposes.
    
     8. -Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions or indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact.
    
     9. -No law shall be passed abridging the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government, or any department thereof; nor shall any divorce be granted otherwise than by due judicial proceedings; nor shall any lottery or the sale of lottery tickets, pool-selling, book making, or any other kind of gambling hereafter be authorized or allowed within this State; and the Legislature shall pass appropriate laws to prevent offenses against any of the provisions of this section.
    
     10. -The people of this State, in their right of sovereignty, are deemed to possess the original and ultimate property in and to all lands within the jurisdiction of the State; and all lands the title to which shall fail, from a defect of heirs, shall revert, or escheat to the people.
    
     11. -All feudal tenures of every description, with all their incidents, are declared to be abolished, saving however, all rents and services certain which at any time heretofore have been lawfully created or reserved.
    
     12. -All lands within this State are declared to be allodial, so that, subject only to the liability to escheat, the entire and absolute property is vested in the owners, according to the nature of their respective estates.
    
     13. -No lease or grant of agricultural land, for a longer period than twelve years, here-after made, in which shall be reserved any rent or service of any kind, shall be valid.
    
     14. -All fines, quarter sales,. or other like restraints upon alienation, reserved in any grant of land hereafter to be made, shall be void.
    
     15. -No purchase or contract for the sale of lands in this State, made since the fourteenth day of October, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five; or which may hereafter be made, of, or with the indians, shall be valid, unless made under the authority, and with the consent of the Legislature.
    
     16. -Such parts of the common law, and of the acts of the Legislature of the colony of New York, as together did form the law of the said colony, on the nineteenth day of April, one thousand seven hundred and seventy five, and the resolutions of the Congress of the said colony, and of the convention of the State of New York, in force on the twentieth day of April, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-seven, which have. not since expired, or been repealed or altered; and such acts of the Legislature of this State as are now in force, shall be and continue the law of this State, subject to such alterations as the Legislature shall make concerning the same. But all such parts of the common law, and such of the said acts, or parts thereof, as are repugnant to this Constitution, are hereby abrogated.
    
     17. -All grants of land within this State, made by the king of Great Britain, or persons acting under his authority, after the fourteenth day of October, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five, shall be null and void; but nothing contained in this Constitution shall affect any grants of land within this State, made by the authority of the said king or his predecessors, or shall annul any charters to bodies politic and corporate, by him or them made, before that day; or shall affect any such grants or charters since made by this State, or by persons acting under its authority; or shall impair the obligation of any debts contracted by the State, or individuals, or bodies corporate, or any other rights of property, or any suits, actions, rights of action, or other proceedings in courts of justice.
    
     18. -The right of action now existing to recover damages for injuries resulting in death, shall never be. abrogated; and the amount recoverable shall not be subject to any statutory limitation.
    
    
    ARTICLE II.
    
    Section 1. -Every male citizen of the age of twenty-one years, who shall have been a citizen for ninety days, and an inhabitant of this State one year next preceding an election, and for the last four months a resident of the county and for the last thirty days a resident of the election district in which he may offer his vote, shall he entitled to vote at such election in the election, district of which he shall at the time be a resident, and not elsewhere, for all officers that now are or hereafter may be elective by the people, and upon all questions which may be submitted to the vote of the people; provided that in time of war no elector in the actual military service of the State, or of the United States, in the army or navy thereof, shall be deprived of his vote by reason of his absence from such election district; and the Legislature shall have power to provide the manner in which sad the time end place at which such absent electors may vote, and for the return end canvass of their votes in the election districts in which they respectively reside.
    
     2. -No person who shall receive, accept, or offer to receive, or pay, offer or promise to pay, contribute, offer or promise to contribute to an other, to be paid or used, any money or other valuable thing as a compensation or reward for the giving or withholding a vote at an election, or who shall make any promise to influence the giving or withholding any such vote, or who shall make or become directly or indirectly interested in any bet or wager depending upon the result of any election, shall vote at such election; and upon challenge for such cause, the person so challenged, before the officers authorized for that purpose shall receive his vote, shall swear or affirm before such officers that he has not received or offered, does not expect to receive, has not paid, offered or promised to pay, contributed, offered or promised to contribute to another, to be paid or used, any money or other valuable thing as a compensation or reward for the giving or withholding a vote at such election, and has not made any promise to influence the giving or withholding of any such vote, nor made or become directly or indirectly interested in any bet or wager depending upon the result of such election. The Legislature shall enact laws excluding from the right of suffrage all persons convicted of bribery or of any infamous crime.
    
     3. -For the purpose of voting, no person shall be deemed to have gained or lost a residence, by reason of his presence or absence, while employed in the service of the United States; nor while engaged in the navigation of the waters of this State, or of the United States, or of the high seas; nor while a student of any seminary of learning; nor while kept at any alms-house, or other asylum, or institution wholly or partly supported at public expense, or by charity; nor while confined in any public prison.
    
     4. -Laws shall be made for ascertaining, by proper proofs, the citizens who shall be entitled to the right of suffrage hereby established, and for the registration of voters; which registration shall be completed at least ten days before each election. Such registration shall not be required for town and village elections except by express provision of law. In cities and villages having five thousand inhabitants or more, according to the last preceding state enumeration of inhabitants, voters shall be registered upon personal application only; but voters not residing in such cities or villages shall not be required to apply in person for registration at the first meeting of the officers having charge of the registry of voters.
    
     5. -All elections by the citizens, except for such town officers as may by law be directed to be otherwise chosen, shall be by ballot, or by such other method as may be prescribed by law, provided that secrecy in voting be preserved.
    
     6. -All laws creating, regulating or affecting boards or officers charged with the duty of registering voters, or of distributing ballots at the polls to voters, or of receiving, recording or counting votes at elections, shall secure equal representation of the two political parties which, at the general election next preceding that for which such boards or officers are to serve, cast the highest and the next highest number of votes. All such boards and officers shall be appointed or elected in such manner, and upon the nomination of such representatives of said parties respectively, as the Legislature may direct. Existing laws on this subject shall continue until the Legislature shall otherwise provide. This section shall not apply to town meetings, or to village elections.
    
    
    ARTICLE III.
    
    
    Section 1. -The legislative power of this State shall be vested in the Senate and Assembly.
    
     2. -The Senate shall consist of fifty members, except as hereinafter provided. The senators elected in the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five shall hold their offices for three years, and their successors shall be chosen for two years. The Assembly shall consist of one hundred and fifty members who shall be chosen for one year.
    
     3. -The State shall be divided into fifty districts to be called senate districts, each of which shall choose one senator. The districts shall be numbered from one to fifty, inclusive.
    
    District number one (1) shall consist of the counties of Suffolk and Richmond.
    
    District number two (2) shall consist of the county of Queens.
    
    District number three (3) shall consist of that part of the county of Kings comprising the first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth wards of the city of Brooklyn.
    
    District number four (4) shall consist of that part of the county of Kings comprising the seventh, thirteenth, nineteenth and twenty-first wards of the city of Brooklyn.
    
    District number five (5) shall consist of that part of the county of Kings comprising the eighth, tenth, twelfth and thirtieth wards of the city of Brooklyn, and the ward of the city of Brooklyn which was formerly the town of Gravesend.
    
    District number six (6) shall consist of that part of the county of Kings comprising the ninth, eleventh, twentieth and twenty-second wards of the city of Brooklyn.
    
    District number seven (7) shall consist of that part of the county of Kings comprising the fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth wards of the city of Brooklyn.
    
    District number eight (8) shall consist of that part of the county of Kings comprising the twenty-third, twenty-fourth, twenty-fifth and twenty-ninth wards of the city of Brooklyn, and the town of Flatlands.
    
    District number nine (9 ) shall consist of that part of the county of Kings comprising the eighteenth, twenty-sixth, twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth wards of the city of Brooklyn.
    
    District number ten (10) shall consist of that part of the county of New York within and bounded by a line beginning at Canal street and the Hudson river, and running thence along Canal street, Hudson street, Dominick street, Varick street, Broome street, Sullivan street, Spring street, Broadway, Canal street, the Bowery, Division street, Grand street and Jackson street, to the East river and thence around the southern end of Manhattan Island, to the place of beginning, and also Governor's, Bedloe's and Ellis islands.
    
    District number eleven (11) shall consist of that part of the county of New York lying north of district number ten, and within and bounded by a line beginning at the junction of Broadway and Canal street, and running thence along Broadway, Fourth street, the Bowery and Third avenue, St. Mark's place, Avenue A, Seventh street, Avenue B, Clinton street, Rivington street, Norfolk street, Division street, Bowery and Canal street, to the place of beginning.
    
    District number twelve (12) shall consist of that part of the county of New York lying north of districts numbers ten and eleven, and within and bounded by a line beginning at Jackson street and the East river, and running thence through Jackson street, Grand street, Division street, Norfolk street, Rivington street, Clinton street, Avenue B, Seventh street, Avenue A, St. Mark's place, Third avenue, East Fourteenth street to the East river, and along the East river, to the place of beginning.
    
    District number thirteen (13) shall consist of that part of the county of New York lying north of district number ten, and within and bounded by a line beginning at the Hudson river at the foot of Canal street, and running thence along Canal street, Hudson street, Dominick street, Varick street, Broome street, Sullivan street, Spring street, Broadway, Fourth street, the Bowery and Third avenue, Fourteenth street, Sixth avenue, West Fifteenth street, Seventh avenue, West Nineteenth street, Eighth avenue, West Twentieth street, and the Hudson river, to the place of beginning.
    
    District number fourteen (14) shall consist of that part of the county of New York lying north of districts numbers twelve and thirteen, and within and bounded by a line beginning at East Fourteenth street and the East river, and running thence along East Fourteenth street, Irving place, East Nineteenth street, Third avenue, East Twenty-third street, Lexington avenue, East Fifty-third street, Third avenue, East Fifty-second street, and the East river, to the place of beginning.
    
    District number fifteen (15) shall consist of that part of the county of New York lying north of district number thirteen, and within and bounded by a line beginning at the junction of West Fourteenth street and Sixth avenue, and running thence along Sixth avenue, West Fifteenth street, Seventh avenue, West Fortieth street, Eighth avenue, and the transverse road across Central park at Ninety-seventh street, Fifth avenue, East Ninety-sixth street, Lexington avenue, East Twenty-third street, Third avenue, East Nineteenth street, Irving place and Fourteenth street, to the place of beginning.
    
    District number sixteen (16) shall consist of that part of the county of New York lying north of district number thirteen, and within and bounded by a line beginning at Seventh avenue and West Nineteenth street, and running thence along West Nineteenth street, Eighth avenue, West Twentieth street, the Hudson river, West Forty-sixth street, Tenth avenue, West Forty-third street, Eighth avenue, West Fortieth street and Seventh avenue, to the place of beginning.
    
    District number seventeen (17) shall consist of that part of the county of New York lying north of district number sixteen, and within and bounded by a line beginning at the junction of Eighth avenue and West Forty-third street, and running thence along West Forty-third street, Tenth avenue, West Forty-sixth street, the Hudson river, West Eighty-ninth street, Tenth or Amsterdam avenue, West Eighty-sixth street, Ninth or Columbus avenue, West Eighty-first street and Eighth avenue, to the place of beginning.
    
    District number eighteen (18) shall consist of that part of the county of New York lying north of district number fourteen, and within and bounded by a line beginning at the junction of East Fifty-second street and the East river, and running thence along East Fifty-second street, Third avenue, East Fifty third street, Lexington avenue, East Eighty fourth street, Second avenue, East Eighty third street and the East river, to the place of beginning; and also Blackwell's island.
    
    District number nineteen (19) shall consist of that part of the county of New York lying north of district number seventeen, and within and bounded by a line beginning at West Eighty-ninth street and the Hudson river, and running thence along the Hudson river and Spuyten Duyvil creek around the northern end of Manhattan island; thence southerly along the Harlem river to the north end of Fifth avenue; thence along Fifth avenue, East One Hundred and Twenty-ninth street, Fourth or Park avenue, East One Hundred and Tenth street, Fifth avenue, the transverse road across Central park at Ninety-seventh street, Eighth avenue, West Eighty-first street, Ninth or Columbus avenue, West Eighty sixth street, Tenth or Amsterdam avenue and West Eighty-ninth street, to the place of beginning.
    
    District number twenty (20) shall consist of that part of the county of New York lying north of districts numbers eighteen and fifteen, and within and bounded by a line beginning at East Eighty-third street and the East river, running thence through East Eighty-third street, Second avenue, East Eighty-fourth street, Lexington avenue, East Ninety-sixth street, Fifth avenue, East One Hundred and Tenth street, Fourth or Park avenue, East One Hundred and Nineteenth street to the Harlem river, and along the Harlem and East rivers, to the place of beginning[2]; and also Randall's island and Ward's island.
    
    All the above districts in the county of New York bounded upon or along the boundary waters of the county, shall be deemed to extend to the county line.
    
    District number twenty one (21) shall consist of that part of the county of New York lying north of districts numbers nineteen and twenty, within and bounded by a line beginning at East One Hundred and Nineteenth street and the Harlem river, and running thence along East One Hundred and nineteenth street, Fourth or Park avenue, One Hundred and Twenty-ninth street, Fifth avenue and the Harlem river, to the place of beginning; and all that part of the county of New York not hereinbefore described.
    
    District number twenty-two (22) shall consist of the county of Westchester.
    
    District number twenty-three (23) shall consist of the counties of Orange and Rockland.
    
    District number twenty-four (24) shall consist of the counties of Dutchess, Columbia and Putnam.
    
    District number twenty-five (25) shall consist of the counties of Ulster and Greene.
    
    District number twenty-six (26) shall consist of the counties of Delaware, Chenango and Sullivan.
    
    District number twenty-seven (27) shall consist of the counties of Montgomery, Fulton, Hamilton and Schoharie.
    
    District number twenty eight (28) shall consist of the counties of Saratoga, Schenectady and Washington.
    
    District number twenty-nine (29) shall consist of the county of Albany.
    
    District number thirty (30) shall consist of the county of Rensselaer.
    
    District number thirty-one (31) shall consist of the counties of Clinton, Essex and Warren.
    
    District number thirty-two (32) shall consist of the counties of St. Lawrence and Franklin.
    
    District number thirty-three (33 ) shall consist of the counties of Otsego and Herkimer.
    
    District number thirty-four (34) shall consist of the county of Oneida.
    
    District number thirty-five (35 ) shall consist of the counties of Jefferson and Lewis.
    
    District number thirty-six (36) shall consist of the county of Onondaga.
    
    District number thirty-seven (37) shall consist of the counties of Oswego and Madison.
    
    District number thirty-eight (38 ) shall consist of the counties of Broome, Cortland and Tioga.
    
    District number thirty-nine (39 ) shall consist of the counties of Cayuga and Seneca.
    
    District number forty (40) shall consist of the counties of Chemung, Tompkins and Schuyler.
    
    District number forty-one (41) shall consist of the counties of Steuben and Yates.
    
    District number forty-two (42) shall consist of the counties of Ontario and Wayne.
    
    District number forty three (43) shall consist of that part of the county of Monroe comprising the towns of Brighton, Henrietta, Irondequoit, Mendon, Penfield, Perinton, Pittsford, Rush and Webster, and the fourth, sixth, seventh, eighth, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth wards of the city of Rochester, as at present constituted.
    
    District number forty-four (44) shall consist of that part of the county of Monroe comprising the towns of Chili, Clarkson, Gates, Greece, Hamlin, Ogden, Parma, Riga, Sweden and Wheatland, and the first, second, third, fifth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, fifteenth, nineteenth and twentieth wards of the city of Rochester, as at present constituted.
    
    District number forty-five (45) shall consist of the counties of Niagara, Genesee and Orleans.
    
    District number forty-six (46) shall consist of the counties of Allegany, Livingston and Wyoming.
    
    District number forty-seven (47) shall consist of that part of the county of Erie comprising the first, second, third, sixth, fifteenth, nineteenth, twentieth, twenty-first, twenty-second, twenty-third and twenty-fourth wards of the city of Buffalo, as at present constituted.
    
    District number forty-eight (48) shall consist of that part of the county of Erie comprising the fourth, fifth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth and sixteenth wards of the city of Buffalo, as at present constituted.
    
    District number forty-nine (49) shall consist of that part of the county of Erie comprising the seventeenth, eighteenth and twenty-fifth wards of the city of Buffalo, as at present constituted; and all the remainder of the said county of Erie not hereinbefore described.
    
    District number fifty (50) shall consist of the counties of Chautauqua and Cattaraugus.
    
     4. -An enumeration of the inhabitants of the State shall be taken under the direction of the Secretary of State, during the months of May and June, in the year one thousand nine hundred and five, and in the same months every tenth year thereafter; and the said districts shall be so altered by the Legislature at the first regular session after the return of every enumeration, that each senate district shall contain as nearly as may be an equal number of inhabitants, excluding aliens, and be in as compact form as practicable, and shall remain unaltered until the return of another enumeration, and shall at all times, consist of contiguous territory, and no county shall be divided in the formation of a senate district except to make two or more senate districts wholly in such county. No town, and no block in a city inclosed by streets or public ways, shall be divided in the formation of senate districts; nor shall any district contain a greater excess in population over an adjoining district in the same county, than the population of a town or block therein, adjoining such district. Counties, towns or blocks which, from their location, may be included in either of two districts, shall be so placed as to make said districts most nearly equal in number of inhabitants, excluding aliens.
    
    No county shall have four or more senators unless it shall have a full ratio for each senator. No county shall have more than one-third of all the senators; and no two counties or the territory thereof as now organized, which are adjoining counties, or which are separated only by public waters, shall have more than one-half of all the senators.
    
    The ratio for apportioning senators shall always be obtained by dividing the number of inhabitants, excluding aliens, by fifty, and the Senate shall always be composed of fifty members, except that if any county having three or more senators at the time of any apportionment shall be entitled on such ratio to an additional senator or senators, such additional senator or senators shall be given to such county in addition to the fifty senators, and the whole number of senators shall be increased to that extent.
    
     5. -The members of the Assembly shall be chosen by single districts, and shall be apportioned by the Legislature at the first regular session after the return of every enumeration among the several counties of the State, as nearly as may be according to the number of their respective inhabitants, excluding aliens. Every county heretofore established and separately organized, except the county of Hamilton, shall always be entitled to one member of assembly, and no county shall hereafter be erected unless its population shall entitle it to a member. The county of Hamilton shall elect with the county of Fulton, until the population of the county of Hamilton shall, according to the ratio, entitle it to a member. But the Legislature may abolish the said county of Hamilton and annex the territory thereof to some other county or counties. The quotient obtained by dividing the whole number of inhabitants of the State, excluding aliens, by the number of members of assembly, shall be the ratio for apportionment, which shall be made as follows: One member of assembly shall be apportioned to every county, including Fulton and Hamilton as one county, containing less than the ratio and one-half over. Two members shall be apportioned to every other county. The remaining members of assembly shall be apportioned to the counties having more than two ratios according to the number of inhabitants, excluding aliens. Members apportioned on remainders shall be apportioned to the counties having the highest remainders in the order thereof respectively. No county shall have more members of assembly than a county having a greater number of inhabitants, excluding aliens.
    
    Until after the next enumeration, members of the Assembly shall be apportioned to the several counties as follows: Albany county, four members; Allegany county, one member; Broome county, two members; Cattaraugus county, two members; Cayuga county, two members; Chautauqua county, two members; Chemung county, one member; Chenango county, one member; Clinton county, one member; Columbia county, one member; Cortland county, one member; Delaware county, one member; Dutchess county, two members; Erie county, eight members; Essex county, one member; Franklin county, one member; Fulton and Hamilton counties, one member; Genesee county, one member; Greene county, one member; Herkimer county, one member; Jefferson county, two members; Kings county, twenty-one members; Lewis county, one member; Livingston county, one member; Madison county, one member; Monroe county, four members; Montgomery county, one member; New York county, thirty five members; Niagara county, two members; Oneida county, three members; Onondaga county, four members; Ontario county, one member; Orange county, two members; Orleans county, one member; Oswego county, two members; Otsego county, one member; Putnam county, one member; Queens county, three members; Rensselaer county, three members; Richmond county, one member; Rockland county, one member; St. Lawrence county, two members; Saratoga county, one member; Schenectady county, one member; Schoharie county, one member; Schuyler county, one member; Seneca county, one member; Steuben county, two members; Suffolk county, two members; Sullivan county, one member; Tioga county, one member; Tompkins county, one member; Ulster county, two members; Warren county, one member; Washington county, one member; Wayne county, one member; Westchester county, three members; Wyoming county, one member, and Yates county, one member.
    
    In any county entitled to more than one member, the board of supervisors, and in any city embracing an entire county and having no board of supervisors, the common council, or if there be none, the body exercising the powers of a common council, shall assemble on the second Tuesday of June, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, and at such times as the Legislature making an apportionment shall prescribe, and divide such counties into assembly districts as nearly equal in number of inhabitants, excluding aliens, as may be, of convenient and contiguous territory in as compact form as practicable, each of which shall be wholly within a senate district formed under the same apportionment, equal to the number of members of assembly to which such county shall be entitled, and shall cause to be filed in the office of the Secretary of State and of the clerk of such county, a description of such districts, specifying the number of each district and of the inhabitants thereof, excluding aliens, according to the last preceding enumeration; and such apportionment and districts shall remain unaltered until another enumeration shall be made, as herein provided; but said division of the city of Brooklyn and the county of Kings to be made on the second Tuesday of June, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, shall be made by the common council of the said city and the board of supervisors of said county, assembled in joint session. In counties having more than one senate district, the same number of assembly districts shall be put in each senate district, unless the assembly districts cannot be evenly divided among the senate districts of any county, in which case one more assembly district shall be put in the senate district in such county having the largest, or one less assembly district shall be put in the senate district in such county having the smallest number of inhabitants, excluding aliens, as the ease may require. No town, and no block in a city inclosed by streets or public ways shall be divided in the formation of assembly districts, nor shall any district contain a greater excess in population over an adjoining district in the same senate district, than the population of a town or block therein adjoining such assembly district. Towns or blocks which, from their location, may be included in either of two districts, shall be so placed as to make said districts most nearly equal in number of inhabitants, excluding aliens; but in the division of cities under the first apportionment, regard shall be had to the number of inhabitants, excluding aliens, of the election districts according to the state enumeration of one thousand eight hundred and ninety-two, so far as may be, instead of blocks. Nothing in this section shall prevent the division, at any time, of counties and towns, and the erection of new towns by the Legislature. An apportionment by the Legislature, or other body, shall he subject to review by the Supreme Court, at the suit of any citizen, under such reasonable regulations as the Legislature may prescribe; and any court before which a cause may be pending involving an apportionment, shall give precedence thereto over all other causes and proceedings, and if said court be not in session it shall convene promptly for the disposition of the same.
    
     6. -Each member of the Legislature shall receive for his services an annual salary of one thousand five hundred dollars. The members of either house shall also receive the sum of one dollar for every ten miles they shall travel in going to and returning from their place of meeting, once in each session, on the most usual route. Senators, when the Senate alone is convened in extraordinary session, or when serving as members of the Court for the Trial of Impeachments, and such members of the Assembly, not exceeding nine in number, as shall be appointed managers of an impeachment, shall receive an additional allowance of ten dollars a day.
    
     7. -No member of the Legislature shall receive any civil appointment within this State, or the Senate of the United States, from the Governor, the Governor and Senate, or from the Legislature, or from any city government, during the time for which he shall have been elected; and all such appointments and all votes given for any such member for any such office or appointment shall be void.
    
     8. -No person shall be eligible to the Legislature, who at the time of his election, is, or within one hundred days previous thereto has been, a member of Congress, a civil or military officer under the United States, or an officer under any city government. And if any person shall, after his election as a member of the Legislature, be elected to Congress, or appointed to any office, civil or military, under the government of the United States, or under any city government,[3] his acceptance thereof shall vacate his seat.
    
     9. -The elections of senators and members of assembly, pursuant to the provisions of this Constitution, shall be held on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November, unless otherwise directed by the Legislature.
    
     10. -A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business. Each house shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, and be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members; shall choose its own officers; and the Senate shall choose a temporary president to preside in ease of the absence or impeachment of the Lieutenant-Governor, or when he shall refuse to act as president, or shall act as Governor.
    
     11. -Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same, except such parts as may require secrecy. The doors of each house shall be kept open, except when the public welfare shall require secrecy. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than two days.
    
     12. -For any speech or debate in either house of the Legislature, the members shall not be questioned in any other place.
    
     13. -Any bill may originate in either house of the Legislature, and all hills passed by one house may be amended by the other.
    
     14. -The enacting clause of all bills shall be "The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows," and no law shall be enacted except by bill.
    
     15. -No bill shall be passed or become a law unless it shall have been printed and upon the desks of the members, in its final form, at least three calendar legislative days prior to its final passage, unless the Governor, or the acting Governor, shall have certified to the necessity of its immediate passage, under his hand and the seal of the State; nor shall any bill be passed or become a law, except by the assent of a majority of the members elected to each branch of the Legislature; and upon the last reading of a bill, no amendment thereof shall be allowed, and the question upon its final passage shall be taken immediately thereafter, and the yeas and nays entered on the journal.
    
     16. -No private or local bill, which may be passed by the Legislature, shall embrace more than one subject, and that shall be expressed in the title.
    
     17. -No act shall be passed which shall provide that any existing law, or any part thereof, shall be made or deemed a part of said act, or which shall enact that any existing law, or part thereof, shall be applicable, except by inserting it in such act.
    
     18. -The Legislature shall not pass a private or local bill in any of the following eases:
    
    Changing the names of persons.
    
    Laying out, opening, altering, working or discontinuing roads, highways or alleys, or for draining swamps or other low lands.
    
    Locating or changing county seats.
    
    Providing for changes in venue in civil or criminal cases.
    
    Incorporating villages.
    
    Providing for election of members of boards of supervisors.
    
    Selecting, drawing, summoning or impaneling grand or petit jurors.
    
    Regulating the rate of interest on money.
    
    The opening and conducting of elections or designating places' of voting.
    
    Creating, increasing or decreasing fees, percentage or allowances of public officers, during the term for which said officers are elected or appointed.
    
    Granting to any corporation, association or individual the right to lay down railroad tracks.
    
    Granting to any private corporation, association or individual any exclusive privilege, immunity or franchise whatever.
    
    Providing for building bridges, and chartering companies for such purposes, except on the Hudson river below Waterford, and on the East river, or over the waters forming a part of the boundaries of the State.
    
    The Legislature shall pass general laws providing for the cases enumerated in this section, and for all other cases which in its judgment may be provided for by general laws. But no law shall authorize the construction or operation of a street railroad except upon the condition that the consent of the owners of one-half in value of the property bounded on, and the, consent also of the local authorities having the control of, that portion of a street or highway upon which it is proposed to construct or operate such railroad be first obtained, or in case the consent of such property owners cannot be obtained, the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, in the department in which it is proposed to be constructed, may, upon application, appoint three commissioners who shall determine, after a hearing of all parties interested, whether such railroad ought to be constructed or operated, and their determination, confirmed by the court, may be taken in lieu of the consent of the property owners.
    
     19. -The Legislature shall neither audit nor allow any private claim or account against the State, but may appropriate money to pay such claims as shall have been audited and allowed according to law.
    
     20. -The assent of two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the Legislature shall be requisite to every bill appropriating the public moneys or property for local or private purposes.
    
     21. -No moneys shall ever be paid out of the treasury of this State, or any of its funds, or any of the funds under its management, except in pursuance of an appropriation by law; nor unless such payment be made within two years next after the passage of such appropriation act; and every such law making a new appropriation, or continuing or reviving an appropriation, shall distinctly specify the sum appropriated, and the object to which it is to be applied; and it shall not be sufficient for such law to refer to any other law to fix such sum.
    
     22. -No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the annual appropriation or supply bill, unless it relates specifically to some particular appropriation in the bill; and any such provision or enactment shall be limited in its operation to such appropriation.
    
     23. - Sections seventeen and eighteen of this article shall not apply to any bill, or the amendments to any bill, which shall be reported to the Legislature by Commissioners who have been appointed pursuant to law to revise the statutes.
    
     24. -Every law which imposes, continues or revives a tax shall distinctly state the tax and the object to which it is to be applied, and it shall not be sufficient to refer to any other law to fix such tax or object.
    
     25. -On the final passage, in either house of the Legislature, of any act which imposes, continues or revives a tax, or creates a debt or charge, or makes, continues or revives any appropriation of public or trust money or property, or releases, discharges or commutes any claim or demand of the State, the question shall be taken by, yeas and nays, which shall be duly entered upon the journals, and three-fifths of all the members elected to either house shall, in all such cases, be necessary to constitute a quorum therein.
    
     26. -There shall be in the several counties, except in cities whose boundaries are the same as those of the county, a board of supervisors, to be composed of such members, and elected in such manner, and for such period, as is or may be provided by law. In any such city the duties and powers of a board of supervisors may be devolved upon the corn-mon council or board of aldermen thereof.
    
     27. -The Legislature shall, by general laws, confer upon the boards of supervisors of the several counties of the State such further powers of local legislation and administration as the Legislature may from time to time deem expedient.
    
     28. -The Legislature shall not, nor shall the common council of any city, nor any board of supervisors, grant any extra compensation to any public officer, servant, agent or contractor.
    
     29. -The Legislature shall, by law, provide for the occupation and employment of prisoners sentenced to the several state prisons, penitentiaries, jails and reformatories in the State; and on and after the first day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-seven, no person in any such prison, penitentiary, jail or reformatory, shall be required or allowed[4] to work, while under sentence thereto, at any trade, industry or occupation, wherein or whereby his work, or the product or profit of his work, shall be farmed out, contracted, given or sold to any person, firm, association or corporation. This section shall not be construed to prevent the Legislature from providing that convicts may work for, and that the products of their labor may be disposed of to, the State or any political division thereof, or for or to any public institution owned or managed and controlled by the State, or any political division thereof.
    
    
    ARTICLE IV.
    
    Section 1. -The executive power shall be vested in a Governor, who shall hold his office for two years; a Lieutenant-Governor shall be chosen at the same time, and for the same term. The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor elected next preceding the time when this section shall take effect, shall hold office until and including the thirty-first day of December, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-six, and their successors shall be chosen at the general election in that year.
    
     2. -No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor or Lieutenant-Governor, except a citizen of the United States, of the age of not less than thirty years, and who shall have been five years next preceding his election a resident of this State.
    
     3. -The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor shall be elected at the times and places of choosing members of the Assembly. The persons respectively having the highest number of votes for Governor and Lieutenant-Governor shall be elected; but in case two or more shall have an equal and the highest number of votes for Governor, or for Lieutenant-Governor, the two houses of the Legislature at its next annual session shall forthwith, by joint ballot, choose one of the said persons so having an equal and the highest number of votes for Governor or Lieutenant-Governor.
    
     4. -The Governor shall be Commander-in-Chief of the military and naval forces of the State. He shall have power to convene the Legislature, or the Senate only, on extraordinary occasions. At extraordinary sessions no subject shall be acted upon, except such as the Governor may recommend for consideration. He shall communicate by message to the Legislature at every session the condition of the State, and recommend such matters to it as he shall judge expedient. He shall transact all necessary business with the officers of government, civil and military. He shall expedite all such measures as may be resolved upon by the Legislature, and shall take care that the laws are faithfully executed. He shall receive for his services an annual salary of ten thousand dollars, and there shall be pro-vided for his use a suitable and furnished executive residence.
    
     5. -The Governor shall have the power to grant reprieves, commutations and pardons after conviction, for all offenses except treason and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions and with such restrictions and limitations, as he may think proper, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law relative to the manner of applying for pardons. Upon conviction for treason, he shall have power to suspend the execution of the sentence, until the case shall be reported to the Legislature at its next meeting, when the Legislature shall either pardon, or commute the sentence, direct the execution of the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. He shall annually communicate to the Legislature each case of reprieve, commutation or pardon granted, stating the name of the convict, the crime of which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, and the date of the commutation, pardon or reprieve.
    
     6. -In case of the impeachment of the Governor, or his removal from office, death, inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, resignation, or absence from the State, the powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the Lieutenant-Governor for the residue of the term, or until the disability shall cease. But when the Governor shall, with the consent of the Legislature, be out of the State, in time of war, at the head of a military force thereof, he shall continue Commander-in-Chief of all the military force of the State.
    
     7. -The Lieutenant-Governor shall possess the same qualifications of eligibility for office as the Governor. He shall be president of the Senate, but shall have only a casting vote therein. If during a vacancy of the office of Governor, the Lieutenant-Governor shall be, impeached, displaced, resign, die, or become incapable of performing the duties of his office, or be absent from the State, the President of the Senate shall act as Governor until the vacancy be filled or the disability shall cease; and if the President of the Senate for any of the above causes shall become incapable of performing the duties pertaining to the office of Governor, the Speaker of the Assembly shall act as Governor until the vacancy be filled or the disability shall cease.
    
     8. -The Lieutenant-Governor shall receive for his services an annual salary of five thousand dollars, and shall not receive or be entitled to any other compensation, fee or perquisite, for any duty or service he may be required to perform by the Constitution or by law.
    
     9. -Every bill which shall have passed the Senate and Assembly shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it with his objections to the house in which it shall have originated, which shall enter the objections at large on the journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration, two-thirds of the members elected to that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent together with the objections to the other house by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if approved by two-thirds of the members elected to that house, it shall become a law notwithstanding the objections of the Governor. In all such cases, the votes in both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the members voting shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the Governor within ten day[5] (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Legislature shall, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not become a law without the approval of the Governor. No bill shall become a law after the final adjournment of the Legislature, unless approved by the Governor within thirty days after such adjournment. If any bill presented to the Governor contain several items of appropriation of money, he may object to one or more of such items while approving of the other portion of the bill. In such case, he shall append to the bill, at the time of signing it, a statement of the items to which he objects; and the appropriation so objected to shall not take effect. If the Legislature be in session, he shall transmit to the house in which the bill originated a copy of such statement, and the items objected to shall be separately reconsidered. If on reconsideration one or more of such items be approved by two-thirds of the members elected to each house, the same shall be part of the law, notwithstanding the objections of the Governor. All the provisions of this section, in relation to bills not approved by the Governor, shall apply in cases in which he shall withhold his approval from any item or items contained in a bill appropriating money.
    
    
    ARTICLE V.
    
    Section 1. -The Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney-General and State Engineer and Surveyor shall be chosen at a general election, at the times and places of electing the Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, and shall hold their offices for two years, except as provided in section two of this article. Each of the officers in this article named, excepting the Speaker of the assembly, shall at stated times during his continuance in office, receive for his services a compensation which shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which he shall have been elected; nor shall he receive to his use any fees or perquisites of office or other compensation. No person shall be elected to the office of State Engineer and Surveyor who is not a practical civil engineer.
    
     2. -The first election of the Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney-General and State Engineer and Surveyor, pursuant to this article shall be held in the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, and their terms of office shall begin on the first day of January following, and shall be for three years. At the general election in the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight, and every two years thereafter, their successors shall be chosen for the term of two years.
    
     3. -A Superintendent of Public Works shall be appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and hold his office until the end of the term of the Governor by whom he was nominated, and until his successor is appointed and qualified. He shall receive a compensation to be fixed by law. He shall be required by law to give security for the faithful execution of his office before entering upon the duties thereof. He shall be charged with the execution of all laws relating to the repair and navigation of the canals, and also of those relating to the construction and improvement of the canals, except so far as the execution of the laws relating to such construction or improvement shall be confided to the State Engineer and Surveyor; subject to the control of the Legislature, he shall make the rules and regulations for the navigation or use of the canals. He may be suspended or removed from office by the governor, whenever, in his judgment, the public interest shall so require; hut in case of the removal of such Superintendent of Public Works front office, the Governor shall file with the Secretary of State a statement of the cause of such removal, and shall report such removal and the cause thereof to the Legislature at its next session.
    
    The superintendent of Public Works shall appoint not more than three assistant superintendents, whose duties shall be prescribed by him, subject to modification by the Legislature, and who shall receive for their services a compensation to be fixed by law. They shall hold their office for three years, subject to suspension or removal by the Superintendent of Public Works, whenever, in his judgment, the public interest shall so require. Any vacancy in the office of any such assistant superintendent shall he filled for the remainder of the term for which he was appointed, by the Superintendent of Public Works; but in case of the suspension or removal of any such assistant superintendent by him, he shall at once report to the Governor, in writing, the cause of such removal. All other persons employed in the care and management of the canals, except collectors of tolls, and those in the department of the State Engineer and Surveyor, shall be appointed by the Superintendent of Public Works, and be subject to suspension or removal by him. The Superintendent of Public Works shall perform all the duties of the former Canal Commissioners, and Board of Canal Commissioners, as now declared by law, until otherwise provided by the Legislature. The Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall have power to fill vacancies in the office of Superintendent of Public Works; if the Senate be not in session, he may grant commissions which shall expire at the end of the next succeeding session of the Senate.
    
     4. -A Superintendent of State prisons shall be appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and hold his office for five years, unless sooner removed; he shall give security in such amount, and with such sureties as shall he required by law for the faithful discharge of his duties; he shall have the superintendence, management and control of state prisons, subject to such laws as now exist or may hereafter he enacted; he shall appoint the agents, wardens, physicians and chaplains of the prisons. The agent and warden of each prison shall appoint all other officers of such prison, except the clerk, subject to the approval of the same by the Superintendent. The Comptroller shall appoint the clerks of the prisons. The Superintendent shall have all the powers and perform all the duties not inconsistent herewith, which were formerly had and performed by the inspectors of State Prisons. The Governor may remove the Superintendent for cause at any time, giving to him a copy of the charges against him, and an opportunity to be heard in his defense.
    
     5. -The Lieutenant-Governor, Speaker of the Assembly, Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney-General and State Engineer and Surveyor shall be the commissioners of the land office. The Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer and Attorney-General shall be the commissioners of the canal fund. The canal board shall consist of the commissioners of the canal fund, the State Engineer and Surveyor, and the Superintendent of Public Works.
    
     6. -The powers and duties of the respective boards, and of the several officers in this article mentioned, shall be such as now are or hereafter may be prescribed by law.
    
     7. -The Treasurer may be suspended from office by the Governor, during the recess of the Legislature, and until thirty days after the commencement of the next session of the Legislature, whenever it shall appear to him that such Treasurer has, in any particular, violated his duty. The Governor shall appoint a competent person to discharge the duties of the office during such suspension of the Treasurer.
    
     8. -All offices for the weighing, gauging, measuring, culling or inspecting any merchandise, produce, manufacture or commodity whatever, are hereby abolished; and no such office shall hereafter be created by law: but nothing in this section contained shall abrogate any office created for the purpose of protecting the public health or the interests of the State in its property, revenue, tolls or purchases, or of supplying the people with correct standards of weights and measures, or shall prevent the creation of any office for such purposes hereafter.
    
     9. -Appointments and promotions in the civil service of the State, and of all the civil divisions thereof, including cities and villages, shall be made according to merit and fitness to be ascertained, so far as practicable, by examinations, which, so far as practicable, shall be competitive; provided however, that honorably discharged soldiers and sailors from the army and navy of the United States in the late civil war, who are citizens and residents of this State, shall be entitled to preference in appointment and promotion, without regard to their standing on any list from which such appointment or promotion may be made. Laws shall be made to provide for the enforcement of this section.
    
    
    ARTICLE VI.
    
    Section 1. -The Supreme Court is continued with general jurisdiction in law and equity, subject to such appellate jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals as now is or may be prescribed by law not inconsistent with this article. The existing judicial districts of the State are continued until changed as hereinafter provided. The Supreme Court shall consist of the Justices now in office, and of the judges transferred thereto by the fifth section of this article, all of whom shall continue to be Justices of the Supreme Court during their respective terms, and of twelve additional Justices who shall reside in, and be chosen by the electors of, the several existing judicial districts, three in the first district, three in the second, and one in each of the other districts; and of their successors. The successors of said Justices shall be chosen by the electors of their respective judicial districts. The Legislature may alter the judicial districts once after every enumeration under the Constitution, of the inhabitants of the State, and thereupon reapportion the Justices to be thereafter elected in the districts so altered.
    
     2. -The Legislature shall divide the State into four judicial departments. The first department shall consist of the county of New York; the others shall be bounded by county lines, and be compact and equal in population as nearly as may be. Once every ten years the Legislature may alter the judicial departments, but without increasing the number thereof.
    
    There shall be an Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, consisting of seven Justices in the First Department, and of five Justices in each of the other departments. In each department four shall constitute a quorum, and the concurrence of three shall be necessary to a decision No more than five Justices shall sit in any case.
    
    From all the Justices elected to the Supreme Court the Governor shall designate those who shall constitute the Appellate Division in each department; and he shall designate the Presiding Justice thereof, who shall act as such during his term of office, and shall be a resident of the department. The other Justices shall be designated for terms of five years, or the unexpired portions of their respective terms of office, if less than five years. From time to time as the terms of such designations expire, or vacancies occur, he shall make new designations. He may also make temporary designations in case of the absence or inability to act, of any Justice in the Appellate Division. A majority of the Justices designated to sit in the Appellate Division in each department shall be residents of the department. Whenever the Appellate Division in any department shall be unable to dispose of its business within a reasonable time, a majority of the Presiding Justices of the several departments at a meeting called by the Presiding Justice of the department in arrears may transfer any pending appeals from such department to any other department for hearing and determination. No Justice of the Appellate Division shall exercise any of the powers of a Justice of the Supreme Court, other than those of a Justice out of court, and those pertaining to the Appellate Division or to the hearing and decision of motions submitted by consent of counsel. From and after the last day of December, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, the Appellate Division shall have the jurisdiction now exercised by the Supreme Court at its General Terms, and by the General Terms of the Court of Common Pleas for the City and County of New York, the Superior Court of the City of New York, the Superior Court of Buffalo and the City Court of Brooklyn, and such additional jurisdiction as may be conferred by the Legislature. It shall have power to appoint and remove a reporter.
    
    The Justices of the Appellate Division in each department shall have power to fix the times and places for holding Special and Trial Terms therein, and to assign the Justices in the Departments to hold such terms; or to make rules therefor.
    
     3. -No Judge or Justice shall sit in the Appellate Division or in the Court of Appeals in review of a decision made by him or by any court of which he was at the time a sitting member. The testimony in equity cases shall be taken in like manner as in cases at law; and, except as herein otherwise provided, the Legislature shall have the same power to alter and regulate the jurisdiction and proceedings in law and in equity that it has heretofore exercised.
    
     4. -The official terms of the Justices of the Supreme Court shall be fourteen years from and including the first day of January next after their election. When a vacancy shall occur otherwise than by expiration of term in the office of Justice of the Supreme Court the same shall be filled for a full term, at the next general election, happening not less than three months after such vacancy occurs; and, until the vacancy shall be so filled, the Governor by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, if the Senate shall be in session, or if not in session the Governor, may fill such vacancy by appointment, which shall continue until and including the last day of December next after the election at which the vacancy shall be filled.
    
     5. -The Superior Court of the City of New York, the Court of Common Pleas for the City and County of New York the Superior Court of Buffalo, and the City Court of Brooklyn, are abolished from and after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-six, and thereupon the seals, records, papers and documents of or belonging to such courts, shall be deposited in the offices of the Clerks of the several counties in which said courts now exist; and all actions and proceedings then pending in such courts shall be transferred to the Supreme Court for hearing and determination. The Judges of said courts in office on the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-six, shall, for the remainder of the terms for which they were elected or appointed, be Justices of the Supreme Court; but they shall sit only in the counties in which they were elected or appointed. Their salaries shall be paid by the said counties respectively, and shall be the same as the salaries of the other justices of the Supreme Court residing in the same counties. Their successors shall be elected as Justices of the Supreme Court by the electors of the judicial districts in which they respectively reside.
    
    The jurisdiction now exercised by the several courts hereby abolished, shall be vested in the Supreme, Court. Appeals from inferior and local courts now heard in the Court of Common Pleas for the City and County of New York and the Superior Court of Buffalo, shall be heard in the Supreme Court in such manner and by such Justice or Justices as the Appellate Divisions in the respective departments which include New York and Buffalo shall direct, unless otherwise provided by the Legislature.
    
     6. -Circuit Courts and Courts of Oyer and Terminer are abolished from and after the last day of December, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five. All their jurisdiction shall thereupon be vested in the Supreme Court, and all actions and proceedings then pending in such courts shall be transferred to the Supreme Court for hearing and determination. Any Justice of the Supreme Court, except as otherwise provided in this article, may hold court in any county.
    
     7. -The Court of Appeals is continued. It shall consist of the Chief Judge and Associate Judges now in office, who shall hold their offices until the expiration of their respective terms, and their successors, who shall be chosen by the electors of the State. The official terms of the Chief Judge and Associate Judges shall be fourteen years from and including the first day of January next after their election. Five members of the court shall form a quorum and the concurrence of four shall be necessary to a decision. The court shall have power to appoint and to remove its reporter, clerk and attendants.
    
     8. -When a vacancy shall occur otherwise than by expiration of term, in the office of Chief or Associate Judge of the Court of Appeals, the same shall be filled, for a full term, at the next general election happening not less than three months after such vacancy occurs; and until the vacancy shall be so filled, the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, if the Senate shall be in session, or if not in session the Governor may fill such vacancy by appointment. If any such appointment of Chief Judge shall be made from among the Associate Judges, a temporary appointment of Associate Judge shall be made in like manner; but in such case, the person appointed Chief Judge shall not be deemed to vacate his office of Associate Judge any longer than until the expiration of his appointment as Chief Judge. The powers and jurisdiction of the court shall not be suspended for want of appointment or election, when the number of Judges is sufficient to constitute a quorum. All appointments under this section shall continue until and including the last day of December next after the election at which the vacancy shall be filled.
    
     9. -After the last day of December, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals, except where the judgment is of death, shall be limited to the review of questions of law. No unanimous decision of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court that there is evidence supporting or tending to sustain a finding of fact or a verdict not directed by the court, shall be reviewed by the Court of Appeals. Except where the judgment is of death, appeals may be taken, as of right, to said court only from judgments or orders entered upon decisions of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, finally determining actions or special proceedings, and from orders granting new trials on exceptions, where the appellants stipulate that upon affirmance judgment absolute shall be rendered against them. The Appellate Division in any department may however, allow an appeal upon any question of law which, in its opinion, ought to be reviewed by the Court of Appeals.
    
    The Legislature may further restrict the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals and the right of appeal thereto, but the right to appeal shall not depend upon the amount involved.
    
    The provisions of this section shall not apply to orders made or judgments rendered by any General Term before the last day of December, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, but appeals therefrom may be taken under existing provisions of law.
    
     10. -The Judges of the Court of Appeals and the Justices of the Supreme Court shall not hold any other office or public trust. All votes for any of them, for any other than a judicial office, given by the Legislature or the people, shall be void.
    
     11. -Judges of the Court of Appeals and Justices of the Supreme Court, may be removed by concurrent resolution of both houses of the Legislature, if two-thirds of all the members elected to each house concur therein. All other judicial officers, except Justices of the Peace and judges or justices of inferior courts not of record, may be removed by the Senate, on the recommendation of the Governor, if two-thirds of all the members elected to the Senate concur therein. But no officer shall be removed by virtue of this section except for cause, which shall be entered on the journals, nor unless he shall have been served with a statement of the cause alleged, and shall have had an opportunity to be heard. On the question of removal, the yeas and nays shall be entered on the journal.
    
     12. -The Judges and Justices hereinbefore mentioned shall receive for their services a compensation established by law, which shall not be increased or diminished during their official terms, except as provided in section five of this article.
    
    No person shall hold the office of Judge or Justice of any court longer than until and including the last day of December next after he shall be seventy years of age. No Judge or Justice elected after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four, shall be entitled to receive any compensation after the last day of December next after he shall be seventy years of age; but the compensation of every Judge of the Court of Appeals or Justice of the Supreme Court elected prior to the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four, whose term of office has been, or whose present term of office shall be, so abridged, and who shall have served as such Judge or Justice ten years or more, shall be continued during the remainder of the term for which he was elected; but any such Judge or Justice may, with his consent, be assigned by the Governor, from time to time, to any duty in the Supreme Court while his compensation is so continued.
    
     13. -The Assembly shall have the power of impeachment, by a vote of a majority of all the members elected. The Court for the Trial of Impeachments shall be composed of the President of the Senate, the senators, or the major part of them, and the Judges of the Court of Appeals, or the major part of them. On the trial of an impeachment against the Governor or Lieutenant-Governor, the Lieutenant-Governor shall not act as a member of the court. No judicial officer shall exercise his office, after articles of impeachment against him shall have been preferred to the Senate, until be shall have been acquitted. Before the trial of an impeachment the members of the court shall take an oath or affirmation truly and impartially to try the impeachment according to the evidence, and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, or removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under this State; but the party impeached shall be liable to indictment and punishment according to law.
    
     14. -The existing County Courts are continued, and the Judges thereof now in office shall hold their offices until the expiration of their respective terms. In the county of Kings there shall be two County Judges and the additional County Judge shall be chosen at the next general election held after the adoption of this article. The successors of the several County Judges shall be chosen by the electors of the counties for the term of six years. County Courts shall have the powers and jurisdiction they now possess, and also original jurisdiction in actions for the recovery of money only, where the defendants reside in the county, and in which the complaint demands judgment for a sum not exceeding two thousand dollars. The Legislature may hereafter enlarge or restrict the jurisdiction of the County Courts, provided however that their jurisdiction shall not be so extended as to authorize an action therein for the recovery of money only, in which the sum demanded exceeds two thousand dollars, or in which any person not a resident of the county is a defendant.
    
    Courts of Sessions, except in the county of New York, are abolished from and after the last day of December, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five. All the jurisdiction of the Court of Sessions in each county, except the county of New York, shall thereupon be vested in the County Court thereof, and all actions and proceedings then pending in such Courts of Sessions shall be transferred to said County Courts for hearing and determination. Every County Judge shall perform such duties as may be required by law. His salary shall be established by law, payable out of the county treasury. A County Judge of any county may hold County Courts in any other county when requested by the Judge of such other county.
    
     15. -The existing Surrogates' Courts are continued, and the Surrogates now in office shall hold their offices until the expiration of their terms. Their successors shall be chosen by the electors of their respective counties, and their terms of office shall be six years, except in the county of New York, where they shall continue to be fourteen years. Surrogates and Surrogates' Courts shall have the jurisdiction and powers which the Surrogates and existing Surrogates' Courts now possess, until otherwise provided by the Legislature. The County Judge shall be Surrogate of his county, except where a separate Surrogate has been or shall be elected. In counties having a population exceeding forty thousand, wherein there is no separate Surrogate, the Legislature may provide for the election of a separate officer to be Surrogate, whose term of office shall be six years. When the Surrogate shall be elected as a separate officer his salary shall be established by law, payable out of the county treasury. No County Judge or Surrogate shall hold office longer than until and including the last day of December next after he shall be seventy years of age. Vacancies occurring in the office of County Judge or Surrogate shall be filled , in the same manner as like vacancies occurring in the Supreme Court. The compensation of any County Judge or Surrogate shall not be increased or diminished during his term of office. For the relief of Surrogates' Courts the Legislature may confer upon the Supreme Court in any county having a population exceeding four hundred thousand, the powers and jurisdiction of Surrogates, with authority to try issues of fact by jury in probate cases.
    
     16. -The Legislature may, on application of the board of supervisors, provide for the election of local officers, not to exceed two in any county, to discharge the duties of County Judge and of Surrogate, in cases of their inability or of a vacancy, and in such other cases as may be provided by law, and to exercise such other powers in special cases as are or may be provided by law.
    
     17. -The electors of the several towns shall, at their annual town meetings, or at such other time and in such manner as the Legislature may direct, elect Justices of the Peace, whose term of office shall be four years. In case of an election to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of a full term, they shall hold for the residue of the unexpired term. Their number and classification may be regulated by law. Justices of the Peace and judges or justices of inferior courts not of record, and their clerks, may be removed for cause, after due notice and an opportunity of being heard by such courts as are or may be prescribed by law. Justices of the Peace and District Court Justices may be elected in the different cities of this State in such manner, and with such powers, and for such terms, respectively, as are or shall be prescribed by law; all other judicial officers in cities, whose election or appointment is not otherwise provided for in this article, shall be chosen by the electors of such cities, or appointed by some local authorities thereof.
    
     18. -Inferior local courts of civil and criminal jurisdiction may be established by the Legislature, but no inferior local court hereafter created shall be a court of record. The Legislature shall not hereafter confer upon any inferior or local court of its creation, any equity jurisdiction or any greater jurisdiction in other respects than is conferred upon County Courts by or under this article. Except as herein otherwise provided, all judicial officers shall be elected or appointed at such times and in such manner as the Legislature may direct.
    
     19. -Clerks of the several counties shall be clerks of the Supreme Court, with such powers and duties as shall be prescribed by law. The Justices of the Appellate Division in each department shall have power to appoint and to remove a clerk who shall keep his office at a place to be designated by said Justices. The Clerk of the Court of Appeals shall keep his office at the seat of government.[6] The Clerk of the Court of Appeals and the clerks of the Appellate Division shall receive compensation to be established by law and paid out of the public treasury.
    
     20. -No judicial officer, except Justices of the Peace, shall receive to his own use any fees or perquisites of office; nor shall any Judge of the Court of Appeals, or Justice of the Supreme Court, or any County Judge or Surrogate hereafter elected in a county having a population exceeding one hundred and twenty thousand, practice as an attorney or counselor in any court of record in this State, or act as referee. The Legislature may impose a similar prohibition upon County Judges and Surrogates in other counties. No one shall be eligible to the office of Judge of the Court of Appeals, Justice of the Supreme Court, or, except in the county of Hamilton, to the office of County Judge or Surrogate, who is not an attorney and counselor of this State.
    
     21. -The Legislature shall provide for the speedy publication of all statutes, and shall regulate the reporting of the decisions of the courts; but all laws and judicial decisions shall be free for publication by any person.
    
     22. -Justices of the Peace and other local judicial officers provided for in sections seventeen and eighteen in office when this article takes effect, shall hold their offices until the expiration of their respective terms.
    
     23. -Courts of Special Sessions shall have such jurisdiction of offenses of the grade of misdemeanors as may be prescribed by law.
    
    
    ARTICLE VII.
    
    Section 1. -The credit of the State shall not in any manner be given or loaned to or in aid of any individual, association or corporation.
    
     2. -The State may, to meet casual deficits or failures in revenues, or for expenses not provided for, contract debts; but such debts, direct or contingent, singly or in the aggregate, shall not at any time exceed one million of dollars; and the moneys arising from the loans creating such debts shall be applied to the purpose for which they were obtained, or to repay the debt so contracted, and to no other purpose whatever.
    
     3. -In addition to the above limited power to contract debts, the State may contract debts to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or defend the State in war; but the money arising from the contracting of such debts shall be applied to the purpose for which it was raised, or to repay such debts, and to no other purpose whatever.
    
     4. -Except the debts specified in sections two and three of this article, no debts shall be hereafter contracted by or on behalf of this State, unless such debt shall be authorized by a law, for some single work or object, to be distinctly specified therein; and such law shall impose and provide for the collection of a direct annual tax to pay, and sufficient to pay, the interest on such debt as it falls due, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt within eighteen years from the time of the contracting thereof. No such law shall take effect until it shall, at a general election, have been submitted to the people, and have received a majority of all the votes cast for and against it at such election. On the final passage of such bill in either house of the Legislature, the question shall be taken by ayes and noes, to be duly entered on the journals thereof, and shall be: "Shall this bill pass, and ought the same to receive the sanction of the people ?" The Legislature may at any time, after the approval of such law by the people, if no debt shall have been contracted in pursuance thereof, repeal the same; and may at any time, by law, forbid the contracting of any further debt or liability under such law; but the tax imposed by such act, in proportion to the debt and liability which may have been contracted in pursuance of such law, shall remain in force and be irrepealable, and be annually collected, until the proceeds thereof shall have made the provision hereinbefore specified to pay and discharge the interest and principal of such debt and liability. The money arising from any loan or stock creating such debt or liability shall be applied to the work or object specified in the act authorizing such debt or liability, or for the repayment of such debt or liability, and for no other purpose whatever. No such law shall be submitted, to be voted on, within three months after its passage or at any general election when any other law, or any bill, or any amendment to the Constitution shall be submitted to be voted for or against.
    
     5. -The sinking funds provided for the payment of interest and the extinguishment of the principal of the debts of the State shall be separately kept and safely invested, and neither of them shall be appropriated or used in any manner other than for the specific purpose for which it shall have been provided.
    
     6. -Neither the Legislature, canal board, nor any person or persons acting in behalf of the State, shall audit, allow, or pay any claim which, as between citizens of the State, would be barred by lapse of time. This provision shall not be construed to repeal any statute fixing the time within which claims shall be presented or allowed, nor shall it extend to any claims duly presented within the time allowed by law, and prosecuted with due diligence from the time of such presentment. But if the claimant shall be under legal disability the claim may be presented within two years after such disability is removed
    
     7. -The lands of the State, now owned or hereafter acquired, constituting the forest preserve as now fixed by law, shall be forever kept as wild forest lands. They shall not be leased, sold or exchanged, or be taken by any corporation, public or private, nor shall the timber thereon be sold, removed or destroyed.
    
     8. -The Legislature shall not sell, lease or otherwise dispose of the Erie canal, the Oswego canal, the Champlain canal, the Cayuga and Seneca canal, or the Black River canal, but they shall remain the property of the state and under its management forever. The prohibition of lease, sale or other disposition herein contained, shall not apply to the canal known as the Main and Hamburg street canal, situated in the city of Buffalo, and which extends easterly from the westerly line of Main street to the westerly line of Hamburg street. All funds that may be derived from any lease, sale or other disposition of any canal shall be applied to the improvement, superintendence or repair of the remaining portion of the canals.
    
     9. -No tolls shall hereafter be imposed on persons or property transported on the canals, but all boats navigating the canals and the owners and masters thereof, shall be subject to such laws and regulations as have been or may hereafter be enacted concerning the navigation of the canals. The Legislature shall annually, by equitable taxes, make provision for the expenses of the superintendence and repairs of the canals. All contracts for work or materials on any canal shall be made with the persons who shall offer to do or provide the same at the lowest price, with adequate security for their performance. No extra compensation shall be made to any contractor; but if, from any unforseen cause, the terms of any contract shall prove to be unjust and oppressive, the canal board may, upon the application of the contractor, cancel such contract.
    
     10. -The canals may be improved in such manner as the Legislature shall provide by law. A debt may be authorized for that purpose in the mode prescribed by section four of this article, or the cost of such improvement may be defrayed by the appropriation of funds from the state treasury, or by equitable annual tax.
    
    
    ARTICLE VIII.
    
    Section 1. -Corporations may be formed under general laws; but shall not be created by special act, except for municipal purposes, and in cases where, in the judgment of the Legislature, the objects of the corporation cannot be attained under general laws. All general laws and special acts passed pursuant to this section may be altered from time to time or repealed.
    
     2. -Dues from corporations shall be secured by such individual liability of the corporators and other means as may be prescribed by law.
    
     3. -The term corporations as used in this article shall be construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies having any of the powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships. And all corporations shall have the right to sue and shall be subject to be sued in all courts in like cases as natural persons.
    
     4. -The Legislature shall, by general law, conform all charters of savings banks, or institutions for savings, to a uniformity of powers, rights and liabilities, and all charters hereafter granted for such corporations shall be made to conform to such general law, and to such amendments as may be made thereto. And no such corporation shall have any capital stock, nor shall the trustees thereof, or any of them, have any interest whatever, direct or indirect, in the profits of such corporation; and no director or trustee of any such bank or institution shall be interested in any loan or use of any money or property of such bank or institution for savings. The Legislature shall have no power to pass any act granting any special charter for banking purposes; but corporations or associations may be formed for such purposes under general laws.
    
     5. -The Legislature shall have no power to pass any law sanctioning in any manner, directly or indirectly, the suspension of specie payments, by any person, association or corporation, issuing bank notes of any description.
    
     6. -The Legislature shall provide by law for the registry of all bills or notes, issued or put in circulation as money, and shall require ample security for the redemption of the same in specie.
    
     7. -The stockholders of every corporation and joint stock association for banking purposes, shall be individually responsible to the amount of their respective share or shares of stock in any such corporation or association, for all its debts and liabilities of every kind.
    
     8. -In case of the insolvency of any bank or banking association, the billholders thereof shall be entitled to preference in payment, over all other creditors of such bank or association.
    
     9. -Neither the credit nor the money of the State shall be given or loaned to or in aid of any association, corporation or private undertaking. This section shall not, however, prevent the Legislature from making such provision for the education and support of the blind, the deaf and dumb, and juvenile delinquents, as to it may seem proper. Nor shall it apply to any fund or property now held, or which may hereafter be held, by the State for educational purposes.
    
     10. -No county, city, town or village shall hereafter give any money or property, or loan its money or credit to or in aid of any individual, association or corporation, or become directly or indirectly the owner of stock in, or bonds of, any association or corporation; nor shall any such county, city, town or village be allowed to incur any indebtedness except for county, city, town or village purposes. This section shall not prevent such county, city, town or village from making such provision for the aid or support of its poor as may be authorized by law. No county or city shall be allowed to become indebted for any purpose or in any manner to an amount which, including existing indebtedness, shall exceed ten per centum of the assessed valuation of the real estate of such county or city subject to taxation, as it appeared by the assessment rolls of said county or city on the last assessment for state or county taxes prior to the incurring of such indebtedness; and all indebtedness in excess of such limitation, except such as may now exist, shall be absolutely void, except as herein otherwise provided. No county or city whose present indebtedness exceeds ten per centum of the assessed valuation of its real estate subject to taxation, shall be allowed to become indebted in any further amount until such indebtedness shall be reduced within such limit. This section shall not be construed to prevent the issuing of certificates of indebtedness or revenue bonds issued in anticipation of the collection of taxes for amounts actually con-tamed, or to be contained in the taxes for the year when such certificates or revenue bonds are issued and payable out of such taxes.
    
    Nor shall this section be construed to prevent the issue of bonds to provide for the supply of water; but the term of the bonds issued to provide the supply of water shall not exceed twenty years, and a sinking fund shall be created on the issuing of the said bonds for their redemption, by raising annually a sum which will produce an amount equal to the sum of the principal and interest of said bonds at their maturity. All certificates of indebtedness or revenue bonds issued in anticipation of the collection of taxes, which are not retired within five years after their date of issue, and bonds issued to provide for the supply of water, and any debt hereafter incurred by any portion or part of a city, if there shall be any such debt, shall be included in ascertaining the power of the city to become otherwise indebted. Whenever hereafter the boundaries of any city shall become the same as those of a county, the power of the county to become indebted shall cease, but the debt of the county at that time existing shall not be included as a part of the city debt. The amount hereafter to be raised by tax for county or city purposes, in any county containing a city of over one hundred thousand inhabitants, or any such city of this State, in addition to providing for the principal and interest of existing debt, shall not in the aggregate exceed in any one year two per centum of the assessed valuation of the real and personal estate of such county or city, to be ascertained as prescribed in this section in respect to county or city debt.
    
     11. -The Legislature shall provide for a State board of charities, which shall visit and inspect all institutions, whether state, county, municipal, incorporated or not incorporated, which are of a charitable, eleemosynary, correctional or reformatory character, excepting only such institutions as are hereby made subject to the visitation and inspection of either of the commissions hereinafter mentioned, but including all reformatories except those in which adult males convicted of felony shall be confined; a state commission in lunacy, which shall visit and inspect all institutions, either public or private, used for the care and treatment of the insane (not including institutions for epileptics or idiots); a state commission of prisons which shall visit and inspect all institutions used for the detention of sane adults charged with or convicted of crime, or detained as witnesses or debtors.
    
     12. -The members of the said board and of the said commissions shall be appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; and any member may be removed from office by the Governor for cause, an opportunity having been given him to be heard in his defense.
    
     13. -Existing laws relating to institutions referred to in the foregoing sections and to their supervision and inspection, in so far as such laws are not inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution, shall remain in force until amended or repealed by the Legislature. The visitation and inspection herein provided for, shall not be exclusive of other visitation and inspection now authorized by law.
    
     14. -Nothing in this Constitution contained shall prevent the it Legislature from making such provision for the education and support of the blind, the deaf and dumb, and juvenile delinquents, as to it may seem proper; or prevent any county, city, town or village from providing for the care, support, maintenance and seen lar education, of inmates of orphan asylums, homes for dependent children or correctional institutions, whether under public or private control. Payments by counties, cities, towns and villages to charitable, eleemosynary, correctional and reformatory institutions, wholly or partly under private control, for care, support and maintenance, may be authorized, but shall not be required by the Legislature. No such payments shall be made for any inmate of such institutions who is not received and retained therein pursuant to rules established by the state board of charities. Such rules shall be subject to the control of the Legislature by general laws.
    
     15. -Commissioners of the state board of charities and commissioners of the state commission in lunacy, now holding office, shall be continued in office for the term for which they were appointed, respectively, unless the Legislature shall otherwise provide. The Legislature may confer upon the commissions and upon the board mentioned in the foregoing sections any additional powers that are not inconsistent with the other provisions of the Constitution.
    
    
    ARTICLE IX.
    
    Section 1. -The Legislature shall provide for the maintenance and support of a system of free common schools, wherein all the children of this State may be educated.
    
     2. -The corporation created in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, under the name of The Regents of the University of the State of New York, is hereby continued under the name of The University of the State of New York. It shall be governed and its corporate powers, which may be increased, modified or diminished by the Legislature, shall be exercised, by not less than nine regents.
    
     3. -The capital of the common school fund, the capital of the literature fund, and the capital of the United States deposit fund, shall be respectively preserved inviolate. The revenue of the said common school fund shall be applied to the support of common schools; the revenue of the said literature fund shall be applied to the support of academies; and the sum of twenty five thousand dollars of the revenues of the United States deposit fund shall each year be appropriated to and made part of the capital of the said common school fund.
    
     4. -Neither the State nor any subdivision thereof, shall use its property or credit or any public money, or authorize or permit either to be used, directly or indirectly, in aid or maintenance, other than for examination or inspection, of any school or institution of learning wholly or in part under the control or direction of any religious denomination, or in which any denominational tenet or doctrine is taught.
    
    
    ARTICLE X.
    
    Section 1. -Sheriffs, clerks of counties, district attorneys, and registers in counties having registers, shall be chosen by the electors once in every three years and as often as vacancies shall happen, except in the counties of New York and Kings, and in counties whose boundaries are the same as those of a city, where such officers shall be chosen by the electors once in every two or four years as the legislature shall direct. Sheriffs shall hold no other office, and be ineligible for the next term after the termination of their offices. They may be required by law to renew their security, from time to time; and in default of giving such new security, their offices shall be deemed vacant. But the county shall never be made responsible for the acts of the sheriff. The Governor may remove any officer, in this section mentioned, within the term for which he shall have been elected; giving to such officer a copy of the charges against him, and an opportunity of being heard in his defense.
    
     2. -All county officers, whose election or appointment is not provided for by this Constitution, shall be elected by the electors of the respective counties or appointed by the boards of supervisors, or other county authorities, as the Legislature shall direct. All city, town and village officers, whose election or appointment is not provided for by this Constitution, shall be elected by the electors of such cities, towns and villages, or of some division thereof, or appointed by such authorities thereof, as the Legislature shall designate for that purpose. All other officers, whose election or appointment is not provided for by this Constitution, and all officers, whose offices may hereafter be created by law, shall be elected by the people, or appointed, as the Legislature may direct.
    
     3. -When the duration of any office is not provided by this Constitution, it may be declared by law, and if not so declared, such office shall be held during the pleasure of the authority making the appointment.
    
     4. -The time of electing all officers named in this article shall be prescribed by law.
    
     5. -The Legislature shall provide for filling vacancies in office, and in case of elective officers, no person appointed to fill a vacancy shall hold his office by virtue of such appointment longer than the commencement of the political year next succeeding the first annual election after the happening of the vacancy.
    
     6. -The political year and legislative term shall begin on the first day of January; and the Legislature shall, every year, assemble on the first Wednesday in January.
    
     7. -Provision shall be made by law for the removal for misconduct or malversation in office of all officers, except judicial, whose powers and duties are not local or legislative and who shall be elected at general elections, and also for supplying vacancies created by such removal.
    
     8. -The Legislature may declare the cases in which any office shall be deemed vacant when no provision is made for that purpose in this Constitution.
    
     9. -No officer whose salary is fixed by the Constitution shall receive any additional compensation. Each of the other state officers named in the Constitution shall, during his continuance in office, receive a compensation, to be fixed by law, which shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which he shall have been elected or appointed; nor shall he receive to his use any fees or perquisites of office or other compensation.
    
    
    ARTICLE XI.
    
    Section 1. -All able-bodied male citizens between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, who are residents of the State, shall constitute the militia, subject however to such exemptions as are now, or may be hereafter created by the laws of the United States, or by the Legislature of this State.
    
     2. -The Legislature may provide for the enlistment into the active force of such other persons as may make application to be so enlisted.
    
     3. -The militia shall be organized and divided into such land and naval, and active and reserve forces, as the Legislature may deem proper, provided however that there shall be maintained at all times a force of not less than ten thousand enlisted men, fully uniformed, armed, equipped, disciplined and ready for active service. And it shall be the duty of the Legislature at each session to make sufficient appropriations for the maintenance thereof.
    
     4. -The Governor shall appoint the chiefs of the several staff departments, his aides-de-camp and military secretary, all of whom shall hold office during his pleasure, their commissions to expire with the term for which the Governor shall have been elected; he shall also nominate, and with the consent of the Senate appoint, all major-generals.
    
     5. -All other commissioned and non-commissioned officers shall be chosen or appointed in such manner as the Legislature may deem most conducive to the improvement of the militia, provided however that no law shall be passed changing the existing mode of election and appointment unless two-thirds of the members present in each house shall concur therein.
    
     6. -The commissioned officers shall be commissioned by the Governor as commander-in-chief. No commissioned officer shall be removed from office during the term for which he shall have been appointed or elected, unless by the Senate on the recommendation of the Governor, stating the grounds on which such removal is recommended, or by the sentence of a court-martial, or upon the findings of an examining board organized pursuant to law, or for absence without leave for a period of six months or more.
    
    
    ARTICLE XII.
    
    Section 1. -It shall be the duty of the Legislature to provide for the organization of cities and incorporated villages, and to restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, contracting debts, and loaning their credit, so as to prevent abuses in assessments. and in contracting debt by such municipal corporation.
    
     2. -All cities are classified according to the latest State enumeration, as from time to time made, as follows: The first class includes all cities having a population of two hundred and fifty thousand or more; the second class, all cities having a population of fifty thousand and less than two hundred and fifty thousand; the third class, all other cities. Laws relating to the property, affairs, or government of cities, and the several departments thereof, are divided into general and special city laws; general city laws are those which relate to all the cities of one or more classes; special city laws are those which relate to a single city, or to less than all the cities of a class. Special city laws shall not be passed except in conformity with the provisions of this section. After any bill for a special city law, relating to a city, has been passed by both branches of the Legislature, the house in which it originated shall immediately transmit a certified copy thereof to the mayor of such city, and within fifteen days thereafter the mayor shall return such bill to the house from which it was sent, or if the session of the Legislature at which such bill was passed has terminated, to the Governor, with the mayor's certificate thereon, stating whether the city has or has not accepted the same.
    
    In every city of the first class, the mayor, and in every other city, the mayor and the legislative body thereof concurrently, shall act for such city as to such bill; but the Legislature may provide for the concurrence of the legislative body in cities of the first class. The Legislature shall provide for a public notice and opportunity for a public hearing concerning any such bill in every city to which it relates, before action thereon. Such a bill, if it relates to more then one city, shall be transmitted to the mayor of each city to which it relates, ad shall not be deemed accepted unless accepted as herein provided, by every such city. Whenever any such bill is accepted as herein provided, it shall be subject as are other bills, to the action of the Governor. Whenever, during the session at which it was passed, any such bill is returned without the acceptance of the city or cities to which it relates, or within such fifteen days is not returned, it may nevertheless again be passed by both branches of the Legislature, and it shall then be subject as are other bills, to the action of the Governor. In every special city law which has been accepted by the city or cities to which it relates, the title shall be followed by the words "accepted by the city," or "cities," as the case may be; in every such law which is passed without such acceptance, by the words "passed without the acceptance of the city," or "cities," as the case may be.
    
     3. -All elections of city officers, including supervisors and judicial officers of inferior local courts, elected in any city or part of a city, and of county officers elected in the counties of New York and Kings, and in all counties whose boundaries are the same as those of a city, except to fill vacancies, shall be held on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday in November in an odd-numbered year, and the term of every such officer shall expire at the end of an odd-numbered year. The terms of office of all such officers elected before the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, whose successors have not then been elected, which under existing laws would expire with an even-numbered year, or in an odd-numbered year and before the end thereof, are extended to and including the last day of December next following the time when such terms would otherwise expire; the terms of office of all such officers, which under existing laws would expire in an even-numbered year, and before the end thereof, are abridged so as to expire at the end of the preceding year. This section shall not apply to any city of the third class, or to elections of any judicial officer, except judges and justices of inferior local courts.
    
    
    ARTICLE XIII.
    
    Section 1. -Members of the Legislature, and all officers, executive and judicial, except such inferior officers as shall be by law exempted shall, before they enter on the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of the State of New York, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of the office of _____________, according to the best of my ability;" and all such officers who shall have been chosen at any election shall, befor[8] they enter on the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the oath or affirmation above prescribed, together with the following addition thereto, as part thereof:
    
    "And I do further solemnly swear (or affirm) that I have not directly or indirectly paid, offered or promised to pay, contributed, or offered or promised to contribute any money or other valuable thing as a consideration or reward for the giving or withholding a vote at the election at which I was elected to said office, and have not made any promise to influence the giving or withholding any such vote," and no other oath, declaration or test shall be required as a qualification for any office or public trust.
    
     2. -Any person holding office under the laws of this State, who, except in payment of his legal salary, fees or perquisites, shall receive or consent to receive, directly or indirectly, anything of value or of personal advantage, or the promise thereof, for performing or omitting to perform any official act, or with the express or implied understanding that his official action or omission to act is to be in any degree influenced thereby, shall be deemed guilty of a felony. This section shall not affect the validity of any existing statute in relation to the offense of bribery.
    
     3. -Any person who shall offer or promise a bribe to an officer, if it shall be received, shall be deemed guilty of a felony and liable to punishment, except as herein provided. No person offering a bribe shall, upon any prosecution of the officer for receiving such bribe, be privileged from testifying in relation thereto, and he shall not be liable to civil or criminal prosecution therefor, if he shall testify to the giving or offering of such bribe. Any person who shall offer or promise a bribe, if it be rejected by the officer to whom it was tendered, shall be deemed guilty of an attempt to bribe, which is hereby declared to be a felony.
    
     4. -Any person charged with receiving a bribe, or with offering or promising a bribe, shall be permitted to testify in his own behalf in any civil or criminal prosecution therefor.
    
     5. -No public officer, or person elected or appointed to a public office, under the laws of this State, shall directly or indirectly ask, demand, accept, receive or consent to receive for his own use or benefit, or for the use or benefit of another, any free pass, free transportation, franking privilege or discrimination in passenger, telegraph or telephone rates, from any person or corporation, or make use of the same himself or in conjunction with another. A person who violates any provision of this section, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall forfeit his office at the suit of the Attorney-General. Any corporation, or officer or agent thereof, who shall offer or promise to a public officer, or person elected or appointed to a public office, any such free pass, free transportation, franking privilege or discrimination, shall also be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and liable to punishment except as herein provided. No person, or officer or agent of a corporation giving any such free pass, free transportation, franking privilege or discrimination hereby prohibited, shall be privileged from testifying in relation thereto, and he shall not be liable to civil or criminal prosecution therefor if he shall testify to the giving of the same.
    
     6. -Any district attorney who shall fail faithfully to prosecute a person charged with the violation in his county of any provision of this article which may come to his knowledge, shall be removed from office by the Governor, after due notice and an opportunity of being heard in his defense. The expenses which shall be incurred by any county, in investigating and prosecuting any charge of bribery or attempting to bribe any person holding office under the laws of this State, within such county, or of receiving bribes by any such person in said county, shall be a charge against the State, and their payment by the State shall be provided for by law.
    
    
    ARTICLE XIV.
    
    Section 1. -Any amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in the Senate and Assembly; and if the same shall be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each of the two houses, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on their journals, and the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the Legislature to be chosen at the next general election of senators, and shall be published for three months previous to the time of making such choice; and if in the Legislature so next chosen, as aforesaid, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by a majority of all the members elected to each house, then it shall be the duty of the Legislature to submit each proposed amendment or amendments to the people for approval in such manner and at such times as the Legislature shall prescribe; and if the people shall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments by a majority of the electors voting thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become a part of the Constitution from and after the first day of January next after such approval.
    
     2. -At the general election to be held in the year one thousand nine hundred and sixteen, and every twentieth year thereafter, and also at such times as the Legislature may by law provide, the question, "Shall there be a convention to revise the Constitution and amend the same?" shall be decided by the electors of the State; and in case a majority of the electors voting thereon shall decide in favor of a convention for such purpose, the electors of every senate district of the State, as then organized, shall elect three delegates at the next ensuing general election at which members of the Assembly shall be chosen, and the electors of the State voting at the same election shall elect fifteen delegates at large. The delegates so elected shall convene at the capitol on the first Tuesday of April next ensuing after their election, and shall continue their session until the business of such convention shall have been completed. Every delegate shall receive for his services the same compensation and the same mileage as shall then be annually payable to the members of the Assembly. A majority of the convention shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, and no amendment to the Constitution shall be submitted for approval to the electors as hereinafter provided, unless by the assent of a majority of all the delegates elected to the convention, the yeas and nays being entered on the journal to be kept. The convention shall have the power to appoint such officers, employes and assistants as it may deem necessary, and fix their compensation and to provide for the printing of its documents, journal and proceedings. The convention shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, choose its own officers, and be the judge of the election, returns and qualification of its members. In case of a vacancy, by death, resignation or other cause, of any district delegate elected to the convention, such vacancy shall be filled by a vote of the remaining delegates representing the district in which such vacancy occurs. If such vacancy occurs in the office of a delegate-at-large, such vacancy shall be filled by a vote of the remaining delegates-at-large. Any proposed constitution or constitutional amendment which shall have been adopted by such convention, shall be submitted to a vote of the electors of the State at the time and in the manner provided by such convention, at an election which shall be held not less than six weeks after the adjournment of such convention. Upon the approval of such constitution or constitutional amendments, in the manner provided in the last preceding section, such constitution or constitutional amendment, shall go into effect on the first day of January next after such approval.
    
     3. -Any amendment proposed by a constitutional convention relating to the same subject as an amendment proposed by the Legislature, coincidently submitted to the people for approval at the general election held in the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four, or at any subsequent election, shall, if approved, be deemed to supersede the amendment so proposed by the Legislature.
    
    
    ARTICLE XV.
    
    Section 1. -This Constitution shall be in force from and including the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, except as herein otherwise provided.
    
    Done in Convention at the Capitol in the city of Albany, the twenty ninth day of September, in the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and nineteenth.
    
    In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our
    
    names.
    
    JOSEPH HODGES CHOATE,
    
    President and Delegate at Large.
    
    CHARLES ELLIOTT FITCH,
    
    Secretary.
    
    
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    This constitution was proposed by a convention which met from May 8, 1894 until September 29, 1894, and it was adopted by the people at a general election held on November 6, 1894. The above text is an exact copy of the original Constitution of 1894 in the possession of the Secretary of State.




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